A Democracia Estudo sobre o governo representativo (Portuguese Edition)
The strong advocacy of those claims resulted in the constitutional definition of health as a right of all and a duty of the State and in the creation of SUS, a decentralized and participatory public healthcare system targeted to comprehensive care of citizens. Moreover, the intense lobbying by social groups for a universal and participatory healthcare system led to the enactment of Act of The Act ensured community participation in the management of the National Public Health Care System by two participatory institutions: the Health Councils and the Conferences on Health.
The Health Councils would be permanent and deliberative bodies constituted by representatives of the government, service providers, health professionals and users, engaged in the formulation of strategies and in the implementation of health policy at local, state and national level.
The Conferences on Health, in turn, would be held every four years to assess the health situation and propose guidelines for healthcare policy by representatives of government and social groups. Once popular participation in the construction, implementation, and evaluation of Health Care Policy was legally ensured, the six Conferences on Health that followed the eighth Conference in , , , , and were characterized by broad participation of users, health professionals, and health service providers at the municipal, state, and national level.
Dynamic modal content
Year after year, the breadth, range, and inclusivity of the Conferences on Health have increased. In December of this year, the 15th Conference on Health will be held to discuss the quality of Health Care to take good care of the people. Another requirement was gender parity with equally represented men and women. Act of established the guidelines for community participation in the management of Health Policy.
The Act defined Conferences on Health must be convened by the Executive Branch or by the Health Council and must have their organization and methodology defined by internal rules, as well as the requirement to ensure equal representation. Those legal guidelines have been followed by the Executive branch since the enactment of that law. In addition to the legal guidelines, internal rules have determined the objectives of the meeting, themes to be discussed, stages and dates for holding the debates, dynamics of deliberation of proposals, and the guidelines for the referral of proposals approved in each meeting to the organizing committee of the next conference.
Regarding the objectives and themes discussed, each conference has peculiarities according to the priority and the government political project for the area at the time of the summons.
Assessing the Impact of the Eurocrisis
Despite those distinctions, the primary purpose of the conference, established by Act of 90, must be fulfilled, namely to assess the health situation and propose guidelines for the formulation of the healthcare policy. Concerning the phases and dates, the internal rules have ensured Conferences on Health at local and state levels, before the national meeting.
The period of completion of each stage is defined by those rules and applies likewise to all municipalities and states.
Although the national conferences usually last three or four days, the entire process takes almost a year to be completed. In all meetings, the objectives and themes of discussion are the same as well as the basis-document that guides the deliberation in these forums. On the local stage, community participation is wide open to all, and all participants have the right to speak and vote in all deliberative spaces. By the end of the meeting, the delegates that will participate in next stage Conference are chosen by majority vote.
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At the state level, a similar voting process takes place to elect delegates to participate in the national conference in Brasilia. Moreover, at every stage, the deliberative process takes place in working groups and plenaries. The working groups discuss and vote the proposals in the basis-document of the conference. Amended or new proposals approved by majority vote of the delegates in the group are brought to the plenary for final examination. All modified and added guidelines approved at the plenary are included in the final report of the conference by the corresponding organizing committee.
Brazilian Conferences on Health – Participedia
Therefore, the deliberative process begins in the first stage and is applied to all meeting until the last one, at the national level. All the guidelines approved along this process are included in the final report of the conference, which will serve to guide the government projects and programs on health at the municipal, state and federal level. The internal rules assign to the organizing committee of each stage the referral of the final report to the Policy Council and Executive branches. The enactment of Act of democratized the management of health policy in Brazil by constituting participatory designs as part of that policy decision-making process.
The Conferences on Health have been decisive to increase community participation in the formulation and implementation of local and national policies by the corresponding Executive branches. Unlike what occurred until the eighties, Conferences on Health have no longer been the main arenas of negotiation and mediation for stakeholders since , but have taken two other primary institutional roles.
The first role is as the articulator of social forces in favor of deepening the system reform process. The institutionalization of participation by Act enabled the strengthening and integration of social movements on Health and, therefore, the organization of integrated and participatory management systems in that area. Secondly, the Conferences on Health have approached users and managers of health policy, especially at the municipal level.
As the process of policy management decentralization advanced, the conferences became the locus where representatives of users — mainly the residents of the poorest parts of municipalities — started to bring forward their demands to policy managers. Moreover, the Conferences on Health have impacted the decisions taken by the Executive and the Legislature. It was through the deliberation taken by eighth Conference held in that the right of every citizen to public health and the creation of the Unified Health System SUS were ensured in the Federal Constitution.
Manual A Democracia: Estudo sobre o governo representativo (Portuguese Edition)
In turn, the 10th Conference boosted the Basic Operational Rule 96 NOB 96 , which encouraged municipalities to take over the management of the local health services network and, in the same year of the 11th Conference on Health, Constitutional Amendment 29 was enacted, which set a threshold for the use of public funds in the financing of health actions and services by municipalities, states and the federal government.
The impact of the guidelines approved in Conferences on Health on the Executive's decisions can be also observed at the sub-national level. The five Conferences on Health held by Parana state government from to performed a diagnosis of the health policy and health services situation which influenced the decisions made by the state managers later. Lastly, the Conferences on Health have influenced the bills proposed and acts enacted by the Legislature.
The final report containing policy guidelines approved by the conferences have activated and impelled the legal activity of the Congress, and its effect on the lawmaking can be measured by the number of bills proposed and statutes enacted, as well as by the content addressed in them. A Democracia Estudo sobre o governo representativo. View Product. A Democracia.
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